Basic glossary about Telecommunication

ADC "Analog to Digital Converter".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_converter
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQmyru1pBvJKeA_2Vo5r5v7RGvW_A%3A1570470722627&source=hp&ei=QnubXaPrI6GblwSFoLHYBQ&q=ADC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=ADC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1738.1738..3609...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.kaO3PSU9b8k&ved=0ahUKEwijlLOs24rlAhWhzYUKHQVQDFsQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
AGC "Automatic gain control".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_gain_control
AM "Amplitude Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation
analog modulation
ancho de banda
ancho de haz a -3 dB Ver "Half Power Beam Width".
angstrom Unit of length.
1 [angstrom] = 1E-10 [m]
angular error See "Half Power Beam Width" (HPBW).
angular resolution
aperture, antenna
ASK "Amplitude Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude-shift_keying
atmospheric noise
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_noise
AU Unit of length.
1 [AU] = 149597870700 [m]
autotransformer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autotransformer
balanced mixer
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQnj6nv4t2cKcrqAA7OUBtwr1-BfQ%3A1570451401166&source=hp&ei=yS-bXc_VB5LSmwX80YzoBg&q=%22balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1076.1076..1515...0.0..0.66.66.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.-zntYP_zw8g&ved=0ahUKEwiP3pqvk4rlAhUS6aYKHfwoA20Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
bandwidth
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandwidth_(signal_processing)
BJT "Bipolar Junction Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_junction_transistor
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQVRc2yKM7m0QXr2bwv-lEL_eS_9g%3A1570469653503&source=hp&ei=FXebXZ_SG8iMlwSt06eACQ&q=BJT+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=BJT+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1360.1360..1772...0.0..0.68.68.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.sGNA_BhzXV0&ved=0ahUKEwjfsMyu14rlAhVIxoUKHa3pCZAQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
BLU "Banda Lateral Única".
BLV "Banda Lateral Vestigial".
BPSK "Binary Phase Shift Keying".
BW a -3 dB Ancho de haz (beam width) a menos 3 dB. Ver "Half Power Beam Width".
Cassegrain antenna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassegrain_antenna
Costas loop
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ-as5umpdPrR_RA1MdjCQYJZFUfw%3A1570455712548&source=hp&ei=oECbXeahH4e2afHHqtAB&q=%22Costas+loop%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22Costas+loop%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1243.1243..2100...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.GmDTdO_DVvg&ved=0ahUKEwjm8YS3o4rlAhUHWxoKHfGjChoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
DAC "Digital to Analog Converter".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital-to-analog_converter
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQpQ7UCl4Tepdou7AkxaVvxpEu9bQ%3A1570470770600&source=hp&ei=cnubXdabIojqaJOapsAJ&q=DAC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=DAC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...921.921..1659...0.0..0.68.68.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.t7vaqc7rH80&ved=0ahUKEwjWnKPD24rlAhUINRoKHRONCZgQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
DBL "Doble Banda Lateral".
demodulator
diagrama de radiación Ver "radiation pattern".
differential amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_amplifier
digital modulation
diode
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode
diode bridge
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode_bridge
directivity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directivity
double balanced mixer
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTrtxVZJ8PpGFmzs7Jb68ssEI_ZQQ%3A1570451509020&source=hp&ei=NDCbXaHiO6GKmwXD6b64AQ&q=%22double+balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22double+balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1148.1148..3440...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.OLnYgSOeCwA&ved=0ahUKEwihzNHik4rlAhUhxaYKHcO0DxcQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
DPSK "Differential Phase Shift Keying".
DSB "Double Sideband".
Electromagnetic Spectrum
In the following link there are some images of the Electromagnetic Spectrum from several universities in USA (the X rays and the Gamma rays are included in the Electromagnetic Spectrum)
https://www.google.com/search?q=%22electromagnetic+spectrum%22+site:edu&sxsrf=ACYBGNT-0Gjavx_BZCIozGBbLxPMTn7Fhg:1570711792537&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjP7MCz3ZHlAhUGxoUKHchZAiQQ_AUIESgB&biw=1920&bih=916
NOTE: The column T[K] in the following image was calculated using the Wien's displacement law, that seems to be against the Planck's law

https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/photon_n_blackbody_id_20191008_142313/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/photon_n_blackbody_id_20191008_142336/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_spectrum
envelope detector
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Envelope_detector
equivalent circuit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalent_circuit
FET "Field Effect Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field-effect_transistor
filter
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_filter
First Null Beam Width FNBW.
FM "Frequency Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_modulation
FNBW See "First Null Beam Width".
Foster-Seeley detector
FPGA "Field Programmable Gate Array".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field-programmable_gate_array
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTWBZbVuIzjg0Zicvgm-5fPvLo_xQ%3A1570469463492&source=hp&ei=V3abXfzMG6-PlwT4wYpo&q=FPGA+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=FPGA+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1325.1325..1862...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.kji3bjLGhjI&ved=0ahUKEwi81P_T1orlAhWvx4UKHfigAg0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
frequency mixer Frequency multiplier.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_mixer
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRIO8DZ8-qmfIgwyZQtOVXwkZKc7g%3A1570452123551&source=hp&ei=mzKbXZ-WHeaUmwWU4Zm4BA&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1039.1039..2969...0.0..0.65.65.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.jARswN9fx3I&ved=0ahUKEwjfz9OHlorlAhVmyqYKHZRwBkcQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSMeRUaOKVMQLKfhFnV3Y7GM04muQ%3A1570452185030&source=hp&ei=2DKbXc6lOqzYmwWu97qgBQ&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aac.uk&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aac.uk&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1450.1450..2676...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.9vvLNBSah84&ved=0ahUKEwjO8fuklorlAhUs7KYKHa67DlQQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRwBLIeuAjV8rxzjIqMK1Em-YliQQ%3A1570452223918&source=hp&ei=_zKbXfjcNfPImwWCoLToDw&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aminicircuits.com&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aminicircuits.com&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1706.1706..2821...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.JWMcsKPywKw&ved=0ahUKEwi42MO3lorlAhVz5KYKHQIQDf0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTICA0zrdV-TiPa4b2H7TiE8L9KhA%3A1570470357461&source=hp&ei=1XmbXY_FGdCYaYnRjegO&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...970.970..2069...0.0..0.65.65.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.PcZ_-mOy3go&ved=0ahUKEwjPg6P-2YrlAhVQTBoKHYloA-0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
frequency multiplier See "frequency mixer".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_multiplier
frequency synthesizer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_synthesizer
FSK "Frequency Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency-shift_keying
fórmula de Friis
With attenuation constant (alpha) equal to zero (space communications)
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_id_20190820_153413/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_id_20190820_162436/
With attenuation constant (alpha) not null (atmosphere, water, ...)
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_atenuacion_id_20190820_154536/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_atenuacion_id_20190820_163713/
Half Power Beam Width HPBW. Ancho de haz a -3 dB.
helical antenna Helical antenna or helix antenna.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helical_antenna
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/antena_helicoidal_id_20190820_152813/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/antena_helicoidal_id_20190820_161813/
helix antenna See "helical antenna".
heterodyne receiver
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRqpwVgCjJHx5WF5nGaoQJC8x25nQ%3A1570446345465&source=hp&ei=CRybXceOGsyZlwTN5q6wCQ&q=heterodyne+receiver+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&oq=heterodyne+receiver+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...935.935..1304...0.0..0.66.66.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.NAAF8eDm7tE&ved=0ahUKEwiHt7vEgIrlAhXMzIUKHU2zC5YQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
heterodyne transmitter
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSVYzkPpxeeDVOJMez4QVpvG34U0w%3A1570446149140&source=hp&ei=RRubXa-OBouFwPAP88yFwA4&q=heterodyne+transmitter+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&oq=heterodyne+transmitter+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1209.1209..2724...0.0..0.62.62.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.ciOyUnFUv8A&ved=0ahUKEwjvxOzm_4nlAhWLAhAIHXNmAegQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
horn antenna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horn_antenna
HPBW See "Half Power Beam Width".
impedance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_impedance
input impedance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input_impedance
instrumentation amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumentation_amplifier
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSGRhfckjZkuKrAgPNYeW7gusab9Q%3A1570471004946&source=hp&ei=XHybXeC0N864aaKXudAP&q=%22instrumentation+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22instrumentation+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1015.9288..9808...0.0..0.301.2456.21j4j0j1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.......0i203j0j0i7i30j0i20i263j0i22i30j33i160j33i21.TG9FD6vB0Ps&ved=0ahUKEwjg0oKz3IrlAhVOXBoKHaJLDvoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
intensidad de radiación Ver "radiant intensity".
intensidad radiante Ver "radiant intensity".
intermodulation distortion
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ1NhVJtlHvDmoXRi0tRg2N_0d3Pw%3A1570454221119&source=hp&ei=zTqbXaSbBeePlwTizpDADw&q=%22intermodulation+distortion%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22intermodulation+distortion%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1101.1101..1610...0.0..0.59.59.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.yPo7J52MFOY&ved=0ahUKEwjkte_vnYrlAhXnx4UKHWInBPgQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
isotropic antenna It is an antenna that radiates its power uniformly in all directions.
(Radiated power per unit area)[W/(m^2)]=(total radiated power)/(sphere surface)=(total radiated power)/(4*Pi*r^2)
JFET "Junction Field Effect Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JFET
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTmQLrA37_Q6sdInQSA1s0CYITHIg%3A1570469738355&source=hp&ei=anebXf2UE-GRlwSthJHgBw&q=JFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=JFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...937.937..1395...0.0..0.57.57.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.csP6FcBKhJo&ved=0ahUKEwj98YfX14rlAhXhyIUKHS1CBHwQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Kirchhoff's laws
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff%27s_circuit_laws
M-PSK
M-QAM
MFSK "Multiple Frequency Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_frequency-shift_keying
microcontroller
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontroller
microprocessor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor
mixer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_mixer
modulation
modulator
MOSFET "Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTFEa8tY9doXh59EZzYhQDfbDb4fw%3A1570469821366&source=hp&ei=vXebXayyE8aNlwTaw6C4Cg&q=MOSFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=MOSFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1231.1231..1505...0.0..0.70.70.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.d68-_fH5TAw&ved=0ahUKEwjshNL-14rlAhXGxoUKHdohCKcQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
MPSK "Multiple Phase Shift Keying".
MSK "Minimum Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum-shift_keying
noise figure
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_figure
noise power spectral density See also "Planck's law".
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNR17nlLMEG0k86IBgPvqX1pkGRrbg%3A1570457937298&source=hp&ei=UUmbXZjtD4KsabDpgYgF&q=%22noise+power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22noise+power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1099.1099..1441...0.0..0.80.80.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.3KWdzujMCpk&ved=0ahUKEwjY2fDbq4rlAhUCVhoKHbB0AFEQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
operational amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_amplifier
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQyBZWB_WvXO8Lr7rbiRGXJNWJ2VA%3A1570470509630&source=hp&ei=bXqbXcHgI4SKlwS6io7oBg&q=%22operational+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22operational+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...889.889..1416...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.MJT6zPUgs8o&ved=0ahUKEwiBy-rG2orlAhUExYUKHTqFA20Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
oscillator
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_oscillator
output impedance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Output_impedance
PCM "Pulse Code Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation
phase detector
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQbbHy6AyvSFQxmGky5OA86JRSxZQ%3A1570451654328&source=hp&ei=xjCbXdu2EayDk74P9ICxqA8&q=%22phase+detector%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22phase+detector%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...842.842..1963...0.0..0.66.66.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.4iJCSda5aKk&ved=0ahUKEwjbsfanlIrlAhWswcQBHXRADPUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
phase noise
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_noise
phasor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phasor
PIRE "Potencia Isotrópica Radiada Equivalente".
Planck's law See also "solar spectrum".
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/planck_law_id_20191010_175413/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/planck_law_id_20191010_175436/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck%27s_law
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_radiation
PLL "Phase Locked Loop".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase-locked_loop
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRXXwusEMS-n0d4eRE_oTjyApw15g%3A1570469326675&source=hp&ei=znWbXeLAJquTlwT3y6GQDg&q=PLL+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=PLL+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1049.1049..3418...0.0..0.62.62.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.XUSfsqaZxxA&ved=0ahUKEwji3-CS1orlAhWryYUKHfdlCOIQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
PM "Phase modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_modulation
polarization
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_(waves)
power spectral density
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTEBr6Tqjq6HNHYTEugwwiJb5tAOA%3A1570457823063&source=hp&ei=30ibXafDAaGdlwTJ47fQCQ&q=%22power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1095.1095..2199...0.0..0.77.77.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.TglQ2KCqvwc&ved=0ahUKEwjnrrSlq4rlAhWhzoUKHcnxDZoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Poynting vector
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poynting_vector
PSK "Phase Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase-shift_keying
QAM "Quadrature Amplitude Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrature_amplitude_modulation
QPSK "Quadrature Phase Shift Keying". Same modulation scheme as 4-QAM. [TECM, 166]
Spectral efficiency
e = log2(M) = log2(4) = 2 [bit/s/Hz]
quartz crystal
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ0E-O8Eu4fpusHxVhc2OsgcMUfkQ%3A1570449533778&source=hp&ei=fSibXaD7LOeMlwT4l6iADw&q=%22quartz+crystal%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22quartz+crystal%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1066.1066..4004...0.0..0.64.64.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.e4y7SdDrv10&ved=0ahUKEwjgreK0jIrlAhVnxoUKHfgLCvAQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
radiant intensity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiant_intensity
radiation pattern
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_pattern
reflection coefficient
regulator
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_regulator
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSprq3vu3uXbsMsdxRIxm2_qVQAcw%3A1570441999630&source=hp&ei=DwubXYKjJJG-aeP5m6gJ&q=7812+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=7812+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1113.1113..1606...0.0..0.58.58.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.dtGHMzg5V0Y&ved=0ahUKEwjC5pqs8InlAhURXxoKHeP8BpUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
RF "Radio frequency".
Schottky diode
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schottky_diode
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTV0BJ2pRcQrdMo0uGeDOqCn9FWqA%3A1570471143044&source=hp&ei=53ybXbg-rJiXBOy4gRg&q=%22Schottky+diode%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22Schottky+diode%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...726.726..3793...0.0..0.72.72.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.C0y7hJANCW8&ved=0ahUKEwj4ze_03IrlAhUszIUKHWxcAAMQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
SNR "Signal to Noise Ratio".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signal-to-noise_ratio
solar spectrum See also "Planck's law".
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTfj3C0GVNolUEBwAaT7NSpbrImlQ%3A1570880734595&source=hp&ei=3ryhXfy_IMT8kwWvqrmgBQ&q=%22solar+spectrum%22+site%3Anasa.gov&oq=%22solar+spectrum%22+site%3Anasa.gov&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1681.1681..8184...0.0..0.72.72.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.mOWfZRMEMnU&ved=0ahUKEwj8pqrh0pblAhVE_qQKHS9VDlQQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
solid angle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_angle
spectral efficiency [TECM, 154]
SSB "Single Sideband".
Stefan-Boltzmann law
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/stefan_boltzmann_law_id_20191011_105913/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/stefan_boltzmann_law_id_20191011_105936/
stepper motor
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSg7N-JjIRE0GjUCBWbIBnfxoe8jQ%3A1570434664124&source=hp&ei=aO6aXa6uBcr4aJnSr-AD&q=%22stepper+motor%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22stepper+motor%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1804.1804..2414...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.Op-2NS3f0rU&ved=0ahUKEwiugq-C1YnlAhVKPBoKHRnpCzwQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
temperatura de ruido de antena [RDPR, 4, 20]
Ndr=k*TA*Bf
* Ndr : potencia de ruido disponible en bornes de la antena
* k : constante de Boltzmann, 1.38E-23 [J/K]
* Bf : ancho de banda de ruido [Hz]
* TA : temperatura de ruido de antena [K]
https://www.google.es/search?hl=en&tbm=isch&sxsrf=ACYBGNTwTbQJsit1I8GRmSu-KpSTeIDkxQ%3A1570794518045&source=hp&biw=1920&bih=916&ei=FmygXaQRy8KDB4PNlIAE&q=antenna+noise+temperature&oq=antenna+noise+temperature&gs_l=img.3..35i39j0i24l5.1322.1322..2980...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz-img.1hnKuay7cMg&ved=0ahUKEwik9IrKkZTlAhVL4eAKHYMmBUAQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
teorema de Shannon [TECM, 176]
thermal noise
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson%E2%80%93Nyquist_noise
Thevenin equivalent circuit
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRqWD0oWpyMjvyOfRR00Q5muMcyuw%3A1570438868637&source=hp&ei=1P6aXai9JIaca9Ows-gK&q=Thevenin+equivalent+circuit+site%3Aedu&oq=Thevenin+equivalent+circuit+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...721.721..3050...0.0..0.59.59.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.uCtrxtI2IR0&ved=0ahUKEwio953X5InlAhUGzhoKHVPYDK0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
transfer function
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_function
transformer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer
transistor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor
Varicap
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicap
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRp_b0p9Y2KmWd_oq9vYTkQfR4pQA%3A1570470620026&source=hp&ei=23qbXfmZPMKclwSBupTICw&q=varicap+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=varicap+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1078.1078..1770...0.0..0.71.71.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.07Y65dW1Svg&ved=0ahUKEwi587z72orlAhVCzoUKHQEdBbkQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
VCO See "Voltage Controlled Oscillator".
Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage-controlled_oscillator
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNT9qdedYlV9o9lZcEUQT675nAROqw%3A1570457432161&source=hp&ei=WEebXZ7hBeyZlwS1uqSoDQ&q=VCO+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=VCO+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...990.990..3203...0.0..0.75.75.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.0eTq82ExoPU&ved=0ahUKEwie7f_qqYrlAhXszIUKHTUdCdUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Voyager antenna The HGA transmits data to Earth on two frequency channels (the downlink). One, at about 8.4 gigahertz (8,400 million cycles per second), is the X-band channel and contains science and engineering data. For comparison, the FM radio band is centered around 100 megahertz. The X-band downlink science data rates are as high as 7.2 kilobits per second. The other channel, around 2.3 gigahertz, is in the S-band, and contains only engineering data on the health and state of the spacecraft at the low rate of 40 bits per second. S-band has not been used since the last planetary encounter. See also "noise power spectral density".
https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/spacecraft/instruments/hga/
https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/
https://descanso.jpl.nasa.gov/DPSummary/Descanso4--Voyager_ed.pdf
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/parabolica_id_20191012_155413/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/parabolica_id_20191012_155436/
Parabolic reflector
d = 3.66 [m] (diameter)
f = 8.4 [GHz] = 8.4E9 [Hz]
k = 0.8 (efficiency <= 0.8)
lambda = 0.03568957833 [m]
gtx = k*Pi^2*d^2/lambda^2 = 83036.50659 [W/W]
Gtx = 10*log10(gtx) = 49.19269070 [dB]
HPBW ~= (70*lambda/d)*(2*Pi/360) = 0.01191340042 [rad] (~= 40' 57.32")
FNBW ~= 2*HPBW = 0.02382680084 [rad]
The Voyager antenna must point to the receiving antenna on Earth with an angular error IN ANY CASE at least LESS than FNBW/2
FNBW/2 ~= 0.01191340042 [rad] (~= 40' 57.32")
While Voyager advances, the Earth moves around the Sun.
arctan(2*149597870700/22E12) ~= 0.01359896807 [rad] (~= 46' 44.99")
149597870700/tan(FNBW/2) = 12.55651518E12 < 22E12
NOTE: An isotropic antenna emitting 1 W in the space at a distance of 22 000 MILLION km creates a power per unit area SS = Ptx/(4*Pi*r^2) ~= 1.644162635E-28 [W*m^-2]
gtx*SS = 1.365255215E-23 [W*m^-2] (direction of maximum of main lobe)
RX antenna
d = 70 [m] (diameter)
f = 8.4 [GHz] = 8.4E9 [Hz]
k = 0.8 (efficiency <= 0.8)
grx = k*Pi^2*d^2/lambda^2 = 3.037406926E7 [W/W]
Grx = 10*log10(grx) = 74.82502979 [dB]
PDrx1w = grx*gtx*SS = 4.146835645E-16 [W*m^-2] (signal power per unit area available in the receiver for each watt transmitted by Voyager)
NOTE: PDrx1w is computed with both antennas (Voyager antenna and RX antenna) pointed with an angular error exactly equal to zero, and without consider the additional attenuation at that frequency due to the Earth atmosphere.
###
QPSK (year 1977)
Spectral efficiency e = 2 [bit/s/Hz]
Vt = 7.2 [kbit/s] = 7200 [bit/s]
B = Vt/e = 7200/2 = 3600 [Hz]
###
Only to get an idea about the maximum noise level that can be around 8.4 [GHz] in a band of 3600 [Hz]
f1 = f - B/2 = 8.4E9 - 1800 [Hz]
f2 = f + B/2 = 8.4E9 + 1800 [Hz]
T = T_eff_Sun = 5772 [K]
Integrating between f1 and f2 the surface brightness per unit frequency from the Planck law scaled according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law (multiplying by Pi), we have the following.
Psb = Pi*(Int(2*h*f^3/(c^2*(exp(h*f/(k*T))-1)), f=f1..f2)) = 1.415122298E-12 [W*m^-2]
R = R_sun = 695508E3 [m]
Ptb = Psb*4*Pi*R^2 = 8.602171520E6 [W]
d = 1 AU = 149597870700 [m]
Psdb = Ptb/(4*Pi*d^2) = 3.058774138E-17 [W*m^-2]
###
C = B*log[2](1 + snr) (Shannon–Hartley theorem)
7200 = 3600*log[2](1 + snr)
snr >= 3
Ptx = 3*grx*Psdb/PDrx1w = 6.721323834E6 [W] ~= 6.72 MW (worst case, line of direct sight tangent to the Sun, noise level approximated with the center of the Sun in the line of direct sight, power required too high)
It is far better to receive the data from Voyager only at night.
###
At a distance of 22 000 MILLION km, the total incident power per unit area because of the Sun is less than 0.063 [W*m^-2].
I think the minimum operating temperature of circuits of conventional military technology is about 218.15 K (-55 ºC).
[...]
VSB "Vestigial Sideband".
waveguide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waveguide

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