Basic glossary about Telecommunication

ADC "Analog to Digital Converter".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analog-to-digital_converter
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQmyru1pBvJKeA_2Vo5r5v7RGvW_A%3A1570470722627&source=hp&ei=QnubXaPrI6GblwSFoLHYBQ&q=ADC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=ADC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1738.1738..3609...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.kaO3PSU9b8k&ved=0ahUKEwijlLOs24rlAhWhzYUKHQVQDFsQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
AGC "Automatic gain control".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automatic_gain_control
AM "Amplitude Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude_modulation
analog modulation
ancho de banda
ancho de haz a -3 dB Ver "Half Power Beam Width".
angstrom Unit of length.
1 [angstrom] = 1E-10 [m]
angular error See "Half Power Beam Width" (HPBW).
angular resolution
anisotropic Anisótropo.
antenas lineales Bajo esta denominación se estudian las antenas construidas con hilos conductores eléctricamente delgados (de diámetro muy pequeño en comparación con lambda). En estas condiciones las corrientes fluyen longitudinalmente sobre la superficie del hilo. Para calcular los campos radiados se modelan como una línea de corriente infinitamente delgada coincidente con el eje del conductor real, que soporta en cada punto un valor de corriente idéntico al que transporta la corriente superficial real en el contorno de la sección correspondiente a ese punto. [RDPR, 5, 2]
Potencial Vector Lejano: A_ = mu/(4*Pi)*(exp(-j*k*r)/r)*Int(...)
aperture, antenna
ASK "Amplitude Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplitude-shift_keying
atmospheric noise
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_noise
AU Unit of length.
1 [AU] = 149597870700 [m]
autotransformer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autotransformer
average forward velocity Average forward velocity of electrons in a conductor. Velocidad de avance promedio de los electrones en un conductor. Less than 1 [m/s] (in conventional electronics).
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/v_electron_id_20190820_152636/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/v_electron_id_20190820_161636/
balanced mixer
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQnj6nv4t2cKcrqAA7OUBtwr1-BfQ%3A1570451401166&source=hp&ei=yS-bXc_VB5LSmwX80YzoBg&q=%22balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1076.1076..1515...0.0..0.66.66.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.-zntYP_zw8g&ved=0ahUKEwiP3pqvk4rlAhUS6aYKHfwoA20Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
balun
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balun
bandwidth
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bandwidth_(signal_processing)
Biot–Savart law Ley de Biot-Savart. See also "Coulomb law" and "Lorentz force".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biot%E2%80%93Savart_law
NOTE: It is not valid in general. The interaction is not instantaneous, it spreads at the speed of light. This also applies to the Newton Universal Gravitation Law.
Biot–Savart law for charges See also "current distribution".
BJT "Bipolar Junction Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipolar_junction_transistor
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQVRc2yKM7m0QXr2bwv-lEL_eS_9g%3A1570469653503&source=hp&ei=FXebXZ_SG8iMlwSt06eACQ&q=BJT+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=BJT+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1360.1360..1772...0.0..0.68.68.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.sGNA_BhzXV0&ved=0ahUKEwjfsMyu14rlAhVIxoUKHa3pCZAQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
BLU "Banda Lateral Única".
BLV "Banda Lateral Vestigial".
BPSK "Binary Phase Shift Keying".
BW a -3 dB Ancho de haz (beam width) a menos 3 dB. Ver "Half Power Beam Width".
Campo Eléctrico Electric field. Ver también "Fuerza de Lorentz".
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campo_el%C3%A9ctrico
Campo magnético Magnetic field. Ver también "fuerza de Lorentz".
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campo_magn%C3%A9tico
campos, relación entre Fields ratio. Relación (módulo de la fuerza debida al campo magnético B)/(módulo de la fuerza debida al campo Eléctrico E). Ver también "Fuerza de Lorentz", "fuerza entre cargas electromagnéticas" y "velocidad de avance de los electrones".
FB/FE <= mu0*epsilon0*vq1*vq2 = vq1*vq2/(c0^2) = vq1*vq2/9E16
NOTA: Considerando válidas la ley de Coulomb y la ley de Biot–Savart (interacción instantánea).
FB - Módulo de la fuerza sobre q2 debida al campo magnético que crea q1.
FE - Módulo de la fuerza sobre q2 debida al campo eléctrico que crea q1.
vq1 - Módulo de la velocidad de la carga q1 respecto al observador.
vq2 - Módulo de la velocidad de la carga q2 respecto al observador.
Ejemplo: Si q1 se mueve en una dirección a 1 [m/s] respecto al observador, y q2 se mueve en otra dirección a 1 [m/s] respecto al observador, tenemos lo siguiente.
FB/FE <= 1/(c0^2) = (1/9)*10^-16 ~= 1.1E-17 !!!!
¡¡La fuerza entre cargas debida al campo magnético es MUCHÍSIMO MÁS PEQUEÑA que la fuerza debida al campo eléctrico!!
Si no hay diferencia de potencial, aunque los electrones se mueven a gran velocidad, la velocidad promedio de avance de los electrones es cero. En esta situación los campos electromagnéticos radiados son ruido.
Si el material es isótropo el ruido se genera en el material independientemente de la dirección.
Cuando aplicamos una diferencia de potencial, los electrones, además de moverse debido al ruido, avanzan con una velocidad relacionada con la diferencia de potencial.
Este movimiento de avance de los electrones superpone a los campos electromagnéticos radiados debido al ruido, los campos electromagnéticos radiados debido a la señal.
Pero la velocidad de avance de los electrones, al menos en el material Cobre, y en electrónica convencional, es menos de 1 m/s.
Usando el resultado anterior parece claro que, sobre cada electrón de la antena receptora, debido a los campos radiados por la antena transmisora, el módulo del campo fuerza debido al campo magnético es muchísimo más pequeño que el módulo del campo fuerza debido al campo eléctrico.
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_154236/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_163336/
cargas imágenes, método de las Ver "method of image charges".
Cassegrain antenna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassegrain_antenna
Cassegrain reflector
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassegrain_reflector
Cobre See "Copper".
Copper (material) Material Cobre. Anisotropic? Orientation of the copper material in the calculations? Permittivity tensor of Copper? Conductivity tensor of Copper? Permeability tensor of Copper?
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQqTV7wKbo0MTm8qmY-IbZ2IiSmLQ%3A1572001313190&source=hp&ei=IdayXe-XCYusa6C-n7AE&q=Copper+anisotropic+site%3Aedu&oq=Copper+anisotropic+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1489.1489..2071...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.1yk6eTEwhYk&ved=0ahUKEwivrO2eobflAhUL1hoKHSDfB0YQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Costas loop
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ-as5umpdPrR_RA1MdjCQYJZFUfw%3A1570455712548&source=hp&ei=oECbXeahH4e2afHHqtAB&q=%22Costas+loop%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22Costas+loop%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1243.1243..2100...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.GmDTdO_DVvg&ved=0ahUKEwjm8YS3o4rlAhUHWxoKHfGjChoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Coulomb law Ley de Coulomb. See also "Biot–Savart law" and "Lorentz force".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb%27s_law
NOTE: It is not valid in general. The interaction is not instantaneous, it spreads at the speed of light. This also applies to the Newton Universal Gravitation Law.
current distribution Distribución de corriente.
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQYuIuK6XLZVV-WQ6j7LayyjHZV1A%3A1571821237570&source=hp&ei=tRawXZzIIOiNlwSH5azQCg&q=antenna+%22current+distribution%22+site%3Aedu&oq=antenna+%22current+distribution%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...958.958..2279...0.0..0.65.65.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.Gl3TEGK6BC8&ved=0ahUKEwjc9o20grLlAhXoxoUKHYcyC6oQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
DAC "Digital to Analog Converter".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital-to-analog_converter
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQpQ7UCl4Tepdou7AkxaVvxpEu9bQ%3A1570470770600&source=hp&ei=cnubXdabIojqaJOapsAJ&q=DAC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=DAC+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...921.921..1659...0.0..0.68.68.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.t7vaqc7rH80&ved=0ahUKEwjWnKPD24rlAhUINRoKHRONCZgQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
DBL "Doble Banda Lateral".
demodulator
diagrama de radiación Ver "radiation pattern".
differential amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_amplifier
digital modulation
diode
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode
diode bridge
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diode_bridge
Dipole antenna Antena Dipolo.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dipole_antenna
Dipolo, antena Dipole antenna.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dipolo_(antena)
directividad Directivity.
directivity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directivity
distorsión Distortion.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distorsi%C3%B3n
distortion Distorsión.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distortion
distribución de corriente Current distribution.
double balanced mixer
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTrtxVZJ8PpGFmzs7Jb68ssEI_ZQQ%3A1570451509020&source=hp&ei=NDCbXaHiO6GKmwXD6b64AQ&q=%22double+balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22double+balanced+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1148.1148..3440...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.OLnYgSOeCwA&ved=0ahUKEwihzNHik4rlAhUhxaYKHcO0DxcQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
DPSK "Differential Phase Shift Keying".
drift velocity See also "Coulomb law", "Biot–Savart law", "Lorentz force" and "velocidad del electrón de conducción".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_velocity
DSB "Double Sideband".
Electric field Campo Eléctrico. See also "Lorentz Force".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_field
Electromagnetic Spectrum
In the following link there are some images of the Electromagnetic Spectrum from several universities in USA (the X rays and the Gamma rays are included in the Electromagnetic Spectrum)
https://www.google.com/search?q=%22electromagnetic+spectrum%22+site:edu&sxsrf=ACYBGNT-0Gjavx_BZCIozGBbLxPMTn7Fhg:1570711792537&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjP7MCz3ZHlAhUGxoUKHchZAiQQ_AUIESgB&biw=1920&bih=916
NOTE: The column T[K] in the following image was calculated using the Wien's displacement law, that seems to be against the Planck's law

https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/photon_n_blackbody_id_20191008_142313/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/photon_n_blackbody_id_20191008_142336/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_spectrum
electron charge
qe = 1.602176634E-19 [C]
envelope detector
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Envelope_detector
equivalent circuit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalent_circuit
FDM "Finite Difference Method".
FDTD "Finite-Difference Time-Domain method".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite-difference_time-domain_method
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSHM1h56wuX8MFp51dmJWYcGEX4ag%3A1571987518286&source=hp&ei=PqCyXY3sDrSLjLsPzcKMsAs&q=FDTD+site%3Aedu+filetype%3Apdf&oq=FDTD+site%3Aedu+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1056.1056..1494...0.0..0.62.62.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.tlkbkybJYfw&ved=0ahUKEwiNg_fs7bblAhW0BWMBHU0hA7YQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
FET "Field Effect Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field-effect_transistor
fields ratio Relación entre campos. Ratio (force module due to magnetic field B)/(force module due to Electric field E). See also "Lorentz force", "fuerza entre cargas electromagnéticas" and "average forward velocity".
FB/FE <= mu0*epsilon0*vq1*vq2 = vq1*vq2/(c0^2) = vq1*vq2/9E16
NOTA: Considerando válidas la ley de Coulomb y la ley de Biot–Savart (interacción instantánea).
FB - Módulo de la fuerza sobre q2 debida al campo magnético que crea q1.
FE - Módulo de la fuerza sobre q2 debida al campo eléctrico que crea q1.
vq1 - Módulo de la velocidad de la carga q1 respecto al observador.
vq2 - Módulo de la velocidad de la carga q2 respecto al observador.
Ejemplo: Si q1 se mueve en una dirección a 1 [m/s] respecto al observador, y q2 se mueve en otra dirección a 1 [m/s] respecto al observador, tenemos lo siguiente.
FB/FE <= 1/(c0^2) = (1/9)*10^-16 ~= 1.1E-17 !!!!
¡¡La fuerza entre cargas debida al campo magnético es MUCHÍSIMO MÁS PEQUEÑA que la fuerza debida al campo eléctrico!!
Si no hay diferencia de potencial, aunque los electrones se mueven a gran velocidad, la velocidad promedio de avance de los electrones es cero. En esta situación los campos electromagnéticos radiados son ruido.
Si el material es isótropo el ruido se genera en el material independientemente de la dirección.
Cuando aplicamos una diferencia de potencial, los electrones, además de moverse debido al ruido, avanzan con una velocidad relacionada con la diferencia de potencial.
Este movimiento de avance de los electrones superpone a los campos electromagnéticos radiados debido al ruido, los campos electromagnéticos radiados debido a la señal.
Pero la velocidad de avance de los electrones, al menos en el material Cobre, y en electrónica convencional, es menos de 1 m/s.
Usando el resultado anterior parece claro que, sobre cada electrón de la antena receptora, debido a los campos radiados por la antena transmisora, el módulo del campo fuerza debido al campo magnético es muchísimo más pequeño que el módulo del campo fuerza debido al campo eléctrico.
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_154236/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_163336/
filter
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_filter
Finite Difference Method Método de las diferencias finitas. FDM.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite_difference_method
Finite-Difference Time-Domain method FDTD.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite-difference_time-domain_method
First Null Beam Width FNBW.
FM "Frequency Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_modulation
FNBW See "First Null Beam Width".
force between electromagnetic charges See also "fields ratio".
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_154236/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_163336/
Foster-Seeley detector
FPGA "Field Programmable Gate Array".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field-programmable_gate_array
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTWBZbVuIzjg0Zicvgm-5fPvLo_xQ%3A1570469463492&source=hp&ei=V3abXfzMG6-PlwT4wYpo&q=FPGA+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=FPGA+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1325.1325..1862...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.kji3bjLGhjI&ved=0ahUKEwi81P_T1orlAhWvx4UKHfigAg0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
frecuencia de resonancia Resonance frequency.
frequency mixer Frequency multiplier.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_mixer
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRIO8DZ8-qmfIgwyZQtOVXwkZKc7g%3A1570452123551&source=hp&ei=mzKbXZ-WHeaUmwWU4Zm4BA&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1039.1039..2969...0.0..0.65.65.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.jARswN9fx3I&ved=0ahUKEwjfz9OHlorlAhVmyqYKHZRwBkcQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSMeRUaOKVMQLKfhFnV3Y7GM04muQ%3A1570452185030&source=hp&ei=2DKbXc6lOqzYmwWu97qgBQ&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aac.uk&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aac.uk&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1450.1450..2676...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.9vvLNBSah84&ved=0ahUKEwjO8fuklorlAhUs7KYKHa67DlQQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRwBLIeuAjV8rxzjIqMK1Em-YliQQ%3A1570452223918&source=hp&ei=_zKbXfjcNfPImwWCoLToDw&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aminicircuits.com&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+site%3Aminicircuits.com&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1706.1706..2821...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.JWMcsKPywKw&ved=0ahUKEwi42MO3lorlAhVz5KYKHQIQDf0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTICA0zrdV-TiPa4b2H7TiE8L9KhA%3A1570470357461&source=hp&ei=1XmbXY_FGdCYaYnRjegO&q=%22frequency+mixer%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22frequency+mixer%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...970.970..2069...0.0..0.65.65.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.PcZ_-mOy3go&ved=0ahUKEwjPg6P-2YrlAhVQTBoKHYloA-0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
frequency multiplier See "frequency mixer".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_multiplier
frequency synthesizer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_synthesizer
FSK "Frequency Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency-shift_keying
Fuerza de Lorentz Lorentz force.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuerza_de_Lorentz
fuerza entre cargas electromagnéticas Ver también "fields ratio".
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_154236/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/fuerza_cargas_electromagneticas_id_20190820_163336/
fórmula de Friis
With attenuation constant (alpha) equal to zero (space communications)
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_id_20190820_153413/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_id_20190820_162436/
With attenuation constant (alpha) not null (atmosphere, water, ...)
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_atenuacion_id_20190820_154536/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/radioenlace_Friis2_atenuacion_id_20190820_163713/
Fórmula de Tai [RDPR, 5, 6]
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSZgNp7F3S-BqczaEI8v0hfj-jvUQ%3A1571998463239&source=hp&ei=_8qyXY-rDKmPlwTW25qQAg&q=%22F%C3%B3rmula+de+Tai%22+site%3Aupm.es&oq=%22F%C3%B3rmula+de+Tai%22+site%3Aupm.es&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1320.1320..2499...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.IjyuhZlElx0&ved=0ahUKEwjPpvLPlrflAhWpx4UKHdatBiIQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Gregorian reflector
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTy_nFOkJozj61utmmSAtWBEQ5KwQ%3A1571816299852&source=hp&ei=awOwXbbnMauWlwSB16TICQ&q=Gregorian+reflector+site%3Aedu&oq=Gregorian+reflector+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1483.1483..4965...0.0..0.58.58.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.tOFpZxFeWM0&ved=0ahUKEwj2yM-B8LHlAhUry4UKHYErCZkQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
guía de onda Waveguide.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gu%C3%ADa_de_onda
Half Power Beam Width HPBW. Ancho de haz a -3 dB.
helical antenna Helical antenna or helix antenna.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helical_antenna
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/antena_helicoidal_id_20190820_152813/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/antena_helicoidal_id_20190820_161813/
helix antenna See "helical antenna".
heterodyne receiver
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRqpwVgCjJHx5WF5nGaoQJC8x25nQ%3A1570446345465&source=hp&ei=CRybXceOGsyZlwTN5q6wCQ&q=heterodyne+receiver+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&oq=heterodyne+receiver+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...935.935..1304...0.0..0.66.66.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.NAAF8eDm7tE&ved=0ahUKEwiHt7vEgIrlAhXMzIUKHU2zC5YQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
heterodyne transmitter
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSVYzkPpxeeDVOJMez4QVpvG34U0w%3A1570446149140&source=hp&ei=RRubXa-OBouFwPAP88yFwA4&q=heterodyne+transmitter+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&oq=heterodyne+transmitter+filetype%3Apdf+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1209.1209..2724...0.0..0.62.62.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.ciOyUnFUv8A&ved=0ahUKEwjvxOzm_4nlAhWLAhAIHXNmAegQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
horn antenna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horn_antenna
HPBW See "Half Power Beam Width".
image charges, method of See "method of image charges".
impedance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_impedance
impedancia característica
impedancia intrínseca
input impedance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Input_impedance
instrumentation amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumentation_amplifier
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSGRhfckjZkuKrAgPNYeW7gusab9Q%3A1570471004946&source=hp&ei=XHybXeC0N864aaKXudAP&q=%22instrumentation+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22instrumentation+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1015.9288..9808...0.0..0.301.2456.21j4j0j1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.......0i203j0j0i7i30j0i20i263j0i22i30j33i160j33i21.TG9FD6vB0Ps&ved=0ahUKEwjg0oKz3IrlAhVOXBoKHaJLDvoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
intensidad de radiación Ver "radiant intensity".
intensidad radiante Ver "radiant intensity".
intermodulation distortion
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ1NhVJtlHvDmoXRi0tRg2N_0d3Pw%3A1570454221119&source=hp&ei=zTqbXaSbBeePlwTizpDADw&q=%22intermodulation+distortion%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22intermodulation+distortion%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1101.1101..1610...0.0..0.59.59.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.yPo7J52MFOY&ved=0ahUKEwjkte_vnYrlAhXnx4UKHWInBPgQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
isotropic Isótropo.
isotropic antenna It is an antenna that radiates its power uniformly in all directions.
(Radiated power per unit area)[W/(m^2)]=(total radiated power)/(sphere surface)=(total radiated power)/(4*Pi*r^2)
JFET "Junction Field Effect Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JFET
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTmQLrA37_Q6sdInQSA1s0CYITHIg%3A1570469738355&source=hp&ei=anebXf2UE-GRlwSthJHgBw&q=JFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=JFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...937.937..1395...0.0..0.57.57.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.csP6FcBKhJo&ved=0ahUKEwj98YfX14rlAhXhyIUKHS1CBHwQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Kirchhoff's laws
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff%27s_circuit_laws
Ley de Biot-Savart Biot–Savart law.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_de_Biot-Savart
NOTA: No es válida en general. La interacción no es instantánea, se propaga a la velocidad de la luz. Esto también se aplica a la Ley de Gravitación Universal de Newton.
Ley de Biot-Savart para cargas Ver "Biot–Savart law for charges".
Ley de Coulomb Coulomb law.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ley_de_Coulomb
NOTA: No es válida en general. La interacción no es instantánea, se propaga a la velocidad de la luz. Esto también se aplica a la Ley de Gravitación Universal de Newton.
linear antenna Antena lineal. [RDPR, 5, 2]
Lorentz force Fuerza de Lorentz. See also "Coulomb law" and "Biot–Savart law".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorentz_force
Lorentz, fuerza de Lorentz force.
línea de transmisión Transmission line.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%ADnea_de_transmisi%C3%B3n
M-PSK
M-QAM
magnetic field Campo magnético. See also "Lorentz force".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_field
maser
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maser
Maxwell equations Ecuaciones de Maxwell.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_equations
Maxwell, ecuaciones de Maxwell equations.
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecuaciones_de_Maxwell
method of image charges
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Method_of_image_charges
Method of Moments (MoM) Método de los Momentos.
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ1ImVhhKdjWJPWEcopZ50k99-9hw%3A1571985568940&source=hp&ei=oJiyXbODN4mLlwTz0aOQBg&q=%22method+of+moments%22+antenna+site%3Aedu&oq=%22method+of+moments%22+antenna+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1475.1475..3493...0.0..0.57.57.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.9ZW5_PCFC40&ved=0ahUKEwiz07TL5rblAhWJxYUKHfPoCGIQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQBhQSSYatTOxIWoiSqe3ibpuvUIQ%3A1571985604838&source=hp&ei=xJiyXayFMYmsa57Wm6gO&q=mom+antenna+site%3Aedu+filetype%3Apdf&oq=mom+antenna+site%3Aedu+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...2241.2241..5970...0.0..0.58.58.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.SfDcXyOyGGk&ved=0ahUKEwis98Pc5rblAhUJ1hoKHR7rBuUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
MFSK "Multiple Frequency Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_frequency-shift_keying
microcontroller
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microcontroller
microprocessor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microprocessor
mixer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_mixer
modulation
modulator
MOM "Method of Moments".
Monopole antenna Antena Monopolo.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monopole_antenna
Monopolo, antena Monopole antenna.
MOSFET "Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOSFET
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTFEa8tY9doXh59EZzYhQDfbDb4fw%3A1570469821366&source=hp&ei=vXebXayyE8aNlwTaw6C4Cg&q=MOSFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=MOSFET+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1231.1231..1505...0.0..0.70.70.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.d68-_fH5TAw&ved=0ahUKEwjshNL-14rlAhXGxoUKHdohCKcQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
MPSK "Multiple Phase Shift Keying".
MSK "Minimum Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum-shift_keying
método de las cárgas imágenes Ver "method of image charges".
Método de los Momentos Method of Moments (MoM).
noise figure
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noise_figure
noise power spectral density See also "Planck's law".
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNR17nlLMEG0k86IBgPvqX1pkGRrbg%3A1570457937298&source=hp&ei=UUmbXZjtD4KsabDpgYgF&q=%22noise+power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22noise+power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1099.1099..1441...0.0..0.80.80.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.3KWdzujMCpk&ved=0ahUKEwjY2fDbq4rlAhUCVhoKHbB0AFEQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
operational amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operational_amplifier
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQyBZWB_WvXO8Lr7rbiRGXJNWJ2VA%3A1570470509630&source=hp&ei=bXqbXcHgI4SKlwS6io7oBg&q=%22operational+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22operational+amplifier%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...889.889..1416...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.MJT6zPUgs8o&ved=0ahUKEwiBy-rG2orlAhUExYUKHTqFA20Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
oscillator
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_oscillator
output impedance
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Output_impedance
PCM "Pulse Code Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulse-code_modulation
permeabilidad Permeability.
permeability
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permeability_(electromagnetism)
permitividad Permittivity.
permittivity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permittivity
phase detector
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQbbHy6AyvSFQxmGky5OA86JRSxZQ%3A1570451654328&source=hp&ei=xjCbXdu2EayDk74P9ICxqA8&q=%22phase+detector%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22phase+detector%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...842.842..1963...0.0..0.66.66.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.4iJCSda5aKk&ved=0ahUKEwjbsfanlIrlAhWswcQBHXRADPUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
phase noise
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_noise
phasor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phasor
PIRE "Potencia Isotrópica Radiada Equivalente".
Planck's law See also "solar spectrum".
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/planck_law_id_20191010_175413/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/planck_law_id_20191010_175436/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planck%27s_law
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_radiation
PLL "Phase Locked Loop".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase-locked_loop
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRXXwusEMS-n0d4eRE_oTjyApw15g%3A1570469326675&source=hp&ei=znWbXeLAJquTlwT3y6GQDg&q=PLL+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=PLL+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1049.1049..3418...0.0..0.62.62.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.XUSfsqaZxxA&ved=0ahUKEwji3-CS1orlAhWryYUKHfdlCOIQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
PM "Phase modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_modulation
polarization
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization_(waves)
Potencial Vector Lejano A_
power spectral density
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTEBr6Tqjq6HNHYTEugwwiJb5tAOA%3A1570457823063&source=hp&ei=30ibXafDAaGdlwTJ47fQCQ&q=%22power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22power+spectral+density%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1095.1095..2199...0.0..0.77.77.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.TglQ2KCqvwc&ved=0ahUKEwjnrrSlq4rlAhWhzoUKHcnxDZoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Poynting vector
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poynting_vector
Principio de Superposición (Electromagnetismo) "Superposition Principle (Electromagnetism)" or "Principle of Superposition (Electromagnetism)".
Principle of Superposition (Electromagnetism) Electromagnetism Superposition Principle or Principle of Superposition for Electromagnetism.
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQMJuIB79rttoCyfbJbL5NOsIf1bw%3A1572018088902&source=hp&ei=qBezXbflNMLQaN_UotAB&q=electromagnetism+%22superposition+principle%22+site%3Aedu&oq=electromagnetism+%22superposition+principle%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...898.898..1267...0.0..0.73.73.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.n9Elh-TiniI&ved=0ahUKEwi32ZHe37flAhVCKBoKHV-qCBoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRi8akIXqbX33zPvZYALQiDLLz05A%3A1572018284169&source=hp&ei=bBizXdG1CISNlwSO952oBg&q=electromagnetism+%22principle+of+superposition%22+site%3Aedu&oq=electromagnetism+%22principle+of+superposition%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...996.996..1467...0.0..0.64.64.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.UylxFUkWkxo&ved=0ahUKEwjRm6C74LflAhWExoUKHY57B2UQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
PSK "Phase Shift Keying".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase-shift_keying
Q factor Factor de calidad.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Q_factor
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSvPdk_f12HKaCiuIg3hgLnR-9GOg%3A1571997919780&source=hp&ei=38iyXfCdLaWelwSQ7rhg&q=resonator+%22Q+factor%22+site%3Aedu&oq=resonator+%22Q+factor%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1026.1026..3125...0.0..0.62.62.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.X8Ufc2ZFelg&ved=0ahUKEwiwieDMlLflAhUlz4UKHRA3DgwQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
QAM "Quadrature Amplitude Modulation".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quadrature_amplitude_modulation
QPSK "Quadrature Phase Shift Keying". Same modulation scheme as 4-QAM. [TECM, 166]
Spectral efficiency
e = log2(M) = log2(4) = 2 [bit/s/Hz]
quartz crystal
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQ0E-O8Eu4fpusHxVhc2OsgcMUfkQ%3A1570449533778&source=hp&ei=fSibXaD7LOeMlwT4l6iADw&q=%22quartz+crystal%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22quartz+crystal%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1066.1066..4004...0.0..0.64.64.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.e4y7SdDrv10&ved=0ahUKEwjgreK0jIrlAhVnxoUKHfgLCvAQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
radiant intensity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiant_intensity
radiation pattern
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_pattern
reflection coefficient
reflector
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflector_(antenna)
regulator
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage_regulator
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSprq3vu3uXbsMsdxRIxm2_qVQAcw%3A1570441999630&source=hp&ei=DwubXYKjJJG-aeP5m6gJ&q=7812+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=7812+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1113.1113..1606...0.0..0.58.58.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.dtGHMzg5V0Y&ved=0ahUKEwjC5pqs8InlAhURXxoKHeP8BpUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
resonador Resonator.
resonance frequency Frecuencia de resonancia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resonance
resonant circuit Circuito resonante.
resonante, circuito Circuito resonante.
resonator Resonador. See also "Q factor".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resonator
RF "Radio frequency".
Schottky diode
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schottky_diode
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTV0BJ2pRcQrdMo0uGeDOqCn9FWqA%3A1570471143044&source=hp&ei=53ybXbg-rJiXBOy4gRg&q=%22Schottky+diode%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22Schottky+diode%22+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...726.726..3793...0.0..0.72.72.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.C0y7hJANCW8&ved=0ahUKEwj4ze_03IrlAhUszIUKHWxcAAMQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
short dipole antenna Antena de dipolo corto.
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRNfb8mxt0GeuBwKuSxjWv_Pyh5tg%3A1571999540736&source=hp&ei=NM-yXevoKovIaKifk7AD&q=%22short+dipole+antenna%22+site%3Aedu+filetype%3Apdf&oq=%22short+dipole+antenna%22+site%3Aedu+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1561.1561..4443...0.0..0.54.54.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.a-us0yLhWj8&ved=0ahUKEwjr0tfRmrflAhULJBoKHajPBDYQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
SNR "Signal to Noise Ratio".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Signal-to-noise_ratio
solar spectrum See also "Planck's law".
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTfj3C0GVNolUEBwAaT7NSpbrImlQ%3A1570880734595&source=hp&ei=3ryhXfy_IMT8kwWvqrmgBQ&q=%22solar+spectrum%22+site%3Anasa.gov&oq=%22solar+spectrum%22+site%3Anasa.gov&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1681.1681..8184...0.0..0.72.72.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.mOWfZRMEMnU&ved=0ahUKEwj8pqrh0pblAhVE_qQKHS9VDlQQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
solid angle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid_angle
spectral efficiency [TECM, 154]
SSB "Single Sideband".
Stefan-Boltzmann law
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/stefan_boltzmann_law_id_20191011_105913/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/stefan_boltzmann_law_id_20191011_105936/
stepper motor
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNSg7N-JjIRE0GjUCBWbIBnfxoe8jQ%3A1570434664124&source=hp&ei=aO6aXa6uBcr4aJnSr-AD&q=%22stepper+motor%22+site%3Aedu&oq=%22stepper+motor%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1804.1804..2414...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.Op-2NS3f0rU&ved=0ahUKEwiugq-C1YnlAhVKPBoKHRnpCzwQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Superposition Principle (Electromagnetism) Electromagnetism Superposition Principle or Principle of Superposition for Electromagnetism.
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNQMJuIB79rttoCyfbJbL5NOsIf1bw%3A1572018088902&source=hp&ei=qBezXbflNMLQaN_UotAB&q=electromagnetism+%22superposition+principle%22+site%3Aedu&oq=electromagnetism+%22superposition+principle%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...898.898..1267...0.0..0.73.73.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.n9Elh-TiniI&ved=0ahUKEwi32ZHe37flAhVCKBoKHV-qCBoQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRi8akIXqbX33zPvZYALQiDLLz05A%3A1572018284169&source=hp&ei=bBizXdG1CISNlwSO952oBg&q=electromagnetism+%22principle+of+superposition%22+site%3Aedu&oq=electromagnetism+%22principle+of+superposition%22+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...996.996..1467...0.0..0.64.64.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.UylxFUkWkxo&ved=0ahUKEwjRm6C74LflAhWExoUKHY57B2UQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Tai Ver "Fórmula de Tai".
temperatura de ruido de antena [RDPR, 4, 20]
Ndr=k*TA*Bf
* Ndr : potencia de ruido disponible en bornes de la antena
* k : constante de Boltzmann, 1.38E-23 [J/K]
* Bf : ancho de banda de ruido [Hz]
* TA : temperatura de ruido de antena [K]
https://www.google.es/search?hl=en&tbm=isch&sxsrf=ACYBGNTwTbQJsit1I8GRmSu-KpSTeIDkxQ%3A1570794518045&source=hp&biw=1920&bih=916&ei=FmygXaQRy8KDB4PNlIAE&q=antenna+noise+temperature&oq=antenna+noise+temperature&gs_l=img.3..35i39j0i24l5.1322.1322..2980...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz-img.1hnKuay7cMg&ved=0ahUKEwik9IrKkZTlAhVL4eAKHYMmBUAQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
teorema de Shannon [TECM, 176]
thermal noise
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson%E2%80%93Nyquist_noise
Thevenin equivalent circuit
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRqWD0oWpyMjvyOfRR00Q5muMcyuw%3A1570438868637&source=hp&ei=1P6aXai9JIaca9Ows-gK&q=Thevenin+equivalent+circuit+site%3Aedu&oq=Thevenin+equivalent+circuit+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...721.721..3050...0.0..0.59.59.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.uCtrxtI2IR0&ved=0ahUKEwio953X5InlAhUGzhoKHVPYDK0Q4dUDCAU&uact=5
transfer function
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_function
transformer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformer
transistor
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transistor
transmission line
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line
transmission line noise
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNTZF_IoKhlwDAUMPSXo6GNyz5xDbA%3A1571818419866&source=hp&ei=swuwXej8McyRlwTdh5SoBA&q=transmission+line+noise+site%3Aedu&oq=transmission+line+noise+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1077.1077..1434...0.0..0.63.63.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.H9P3bxwAeJA&ved=0ahUKEwioosL097HlAhXMyIUKHd0DBUUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Varicap
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varicap
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRp_b0p9Y2KmWd_oq9vYTkQfR4pQA%3A1570470620026&source=hp&ei=23qbXfmZPMKclwSBupTICw&q=varicap+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=varicap+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1078.1078..1770...0.0..0.71.71.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.07Y65dW1Svg&ved=0ahUKEwi587z72orlAhVCzoUKHQEdBbkQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
VCO See "Voltage Controlled Oscillator".
velocidad de avance de los electrones Velocidad de avance promedio de los electrones. Ver "velocidad del electrón de conducción".
velocidad del electrón de conducción velocidad de desplazamiento de los electrones o velocidad de avance promedio de los electrones por un conductor, depende del tipo de conductor. En circuitos electrónicos y antenas convencionales, estas velocidades de desplazamiento son muy pequeñas, menos de 1 [m/s]. Esto no contradice que la perturbación se propaga a velocidades muy elevadas, los electrones "se empujan" unos a otros. Ver también "drift velocity".
José María de Juana. "Física General. Volumen II". Prentice-Hall, 2007. Ejemplo "Velocidad del electrón de conducción" (página 88).
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/v_electron_id_20190820_152636/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/v_electron_id_20190820_161636/
Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCO.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage-controlled_oscillator
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNT9qdedYlV9o9lZcEUQT675nAROqw%3A1570457432161&source=hp&ei=WEebXZ7hBeyZlwS1uqSoDQ&q=VCO+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&oq=VCO+datasheet+filetype%3Apdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3...990.990..3203...0.0..0.75.75.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.0eTq82ExoPU&ved=0ahUKEwie7f_qqYrlAhXszIUKHTUdCdUQ4dUDCAU&uact=5
Voyager antenna The HGA transmits data to Earth on two frequency channels (the downlink). One, at about 8.4 gigahertz (8,400 million cycles per second), is the X-band channel and contains science and engineering data. For comparison, the FM radio band is centered around 100 megahertz. The X-band downlink science data rates are as high as 7.2 kilobits per second. The other channel, around 2.3 gigahertz, is in the S-band, and contains only engineering data on the health and state of the spacecraft at the low rate of 40 bits per second. S-band has not been used since the last planetary encounter. See also "noise power spectral density".
https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/spacecraft/instruments/hga/
https://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/
https://descanso.jpl.nasa.gov/DPSummary/Descanso4--Voyager_ed.pdf
https://xformulas.net/genjavaapps/generated_apps/parabolica_id_20191012_155413/
https://xformulas.net/gencppapps/generated_apps/parabolica_id_20191012_155436/
Parabolic reflector
d = 3.66 [m] (diameter)
f = 8.4 [GHz] = 8.4E9 [Hz]
k = 0.8 (efficiency <= 0.8)
lambda = 0.03568957833 [m]
gtx = k*Pi^2*d^2/lambda^2 = 83036.50659 [W/W]
Gtx = 10*log10(gtx) = 49.19269070 [dB]
HPBW ~= (70*lambda/d)*(2*Pi/360) = 0.01191340042 [rad] (~= 40' 57.32")
FNBW ~= 2*HPBW = 0.02382680084 [rad]
The Voyager antenna must point to the receiving antenna on Earth with an angular error IN ANY CASE at least LESS than FNBW/2
FNBW/2 ~= 0.01191340042 [rad] (~= 40' 57.32")
While Voyager advances, the Earth moves around the Sun.
arctan(2*149597870700/22E12) ~= 0.01359896807 [rad] (~= 46' 44.99")
149597870700/tan(FNBW/2) = 12.55651518E12 < 22E12
NOTE: An isotropic antenna emitting 1 W in the space at a distance of 22 000 MILLION km creates a power per unit area SS = Ptx/(4*Pi*r^2) ~= 1.644162635E-28 [W*m^-2]
gtx*SS = 1.365255215E-23 [W*m^-2] (direction of maximum of main lobe)
RX antenna
d = 70 [m] (diameter)
f = 8.4 [GHz] = 8.4E9 [Hz]
k = 0.8 (efficiency <= 0.8)
grx = k*Pi^2*d^2/lambda^2 = 3.037406926E7 [W/W]
Grx = 10*log10(grx) = 74.82502979 [dB]
PDrx1w = grx*gtx*SS = 4.146835645E-16 [W*m^-2] (signal power per unit area available in the receiver for each watt transmitted by Voyager)
NOTE: PDrx1w is computed with both antennas (Voyager antenna and RX antenna) pointed with an angular error exactly equal to zero, and without consider the additional attenuation at that frequency due to the Earth atmosphere.
###
QPSK (year 1977)
Spectral efficiency e = 2 [bit/s/Hz]
Vt = 7.2 [kbit/s] = 7200 [bit/s]
B = Vt/e = 7200/2 = 3600 [Hz]
###
Only to get an idea about the maximum noise level that can be around 8.4 [GHz] in a band of 3600 [Hz]
f1 = f - B/2 = 8.4E9 - 1800 [Hz]
f2 = f + B/2 = 8.4E9 + 1800 [Hz]
T = T_eff_Sun = 5772 [K]
Integrating between f1 and f2 the surface brightness per unit frequency from the Planck law scaled according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law (multiplying by Pi), we have the following.
Psb = Pi*(Int(2*h*f^3/(c^2*(exp(h*f/(k*T))-1)), f=f1..f2)) = 1.415122298E-12 [W*m^-2]
R = R_sun = 695508E3 [m]
Ptb = Psb*4*Pi*R^2 = 8.602171520E6 [W]
d = 1 AU = 149597870700 [m]
Psdb = Ptb/(4*Pi*d^2) = 3.058774138E-17 [W*m^-2]
###
C = B*log[2](1 + snr) (Shannon–Hartley theorem)
7200 = 3600*log[2](1 + snr)
snr >= 3
Ptx = 3*grx*Psdb/PDrx1w = 6.721323834E6 [W] ~= 6.72 MW (worst case, line of direct sight tangent to the Sun, noise level approximated with the center of the Sun in the line of direct sight, power required too high)
It is far better to receive the data from Voyager only at night.
###
At a distance of 22 000 MILLION km, the total incident power per unit area because of the Sun is less than 0.063 [W*m^-2].
I think the minimum operating temperature of circuits of conventional military technology is about 218.15 K (-55 ºC).
[...]
VSB "Vestigial Sideband".
waveguide
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waveguide
waveguide noise
https://www.google.com/search?sxsrf=ACYBGNRLRLIuNktBjvlZhVYSDK5Rb5Yp-g%3A1571818797641&source=hp&ei=LQ2wXa_tI4jBUpuRpNgN&q=waveguide+noise+site%3Aedu&oq=waveguide+noise+site%3Aedu&gs_l=psy-ab.3...1075.1075..1656...0.0..0.61.61.1......0....2j1..gws-wiz.jmErubThm8M&ved=0ahUKEwjvt9Oo-bHlAhWIoBQKHZsICdsQ4dUDCAU&uact=5

Generated on 20191209_101636